William Colquhoun-Flannery - Circle Reading - Ear Nose Throat
Consultant ENT Surgeon

Dept of ENT - Head & Neck Surgery
Royal Berkshire Hospital
London Road
Reading, RG1 5AN

Paediatric and Adult Practices

Sleep Disturbance

Patients often present to ENT clinics with sleep disturbance. Their symptoms can include insomnia, interrupted sleep, interrupted sleep of the sleeping partner, poor energy levels and daytime sleepiness.

Typical causes include, nasal block, sinusitis, large tonsils and obesity.

The stages of sleep

Sleep is divided into five stages. The first four are associated with deepening sleep, decreased muscle activity and slowed breathing and pulse rate. The fifth stage is reached when rapid eye movement occurs. It is in this stage that dreaming occurs. The fourth stage is the deepest form of sleep during which the patient is the least arousable. It is associated with delta waves on the electroencephalogram.

How many people are affected?

Sleep disorder, in its various forms, is very common. A third of adults report sleep disorder at some point in their lives. 20-40% of adults report sleep disorder at some time in the year. 17% rate their sleep disorder as serious. 20% of adults complain of chronic insomnia.

Gender

Sleep disorder is more common in women with a female:male ratio of 3:2. Men are more likely to have obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). 4% of men have OSA compared with 2.5% in women.

Age

Sleep disturbance gets worse with age. In the 30 to 50 year old age group, 5% suffer. Over 50 years this rises to 30%. The elderly experience decrease sleeping periods, awake more often in the night and are more likely to take medications which disrupt sleep.

Causes

The causes of sleep disturbance can be split into medical, psychological and environmental problems.

Medical problems

These are myriad and include heart failure, neurological conditions, thyroid problems and other disorders of the hormone system, acid reflux from the stomach, stimulants (caffeine and alcohol), certain medications and upper airway obstruction - nasal block, sinusitis, large tonsils and obesity.

Psychological problems

These include depression, post-traumatic stress, anxiety, thought disorder and psychiatric medication.

Environmental problems

Life-threatening events, shift-working, jet lag, changes in altitude, hot sleeping environment, environmental noise (e.g. snoring form the sleeping partner) or frequent external disturbance.

Treatment

Given the number of serious medical conditions that can cause sleep disturbance, patients should always consult their primary care doctor.

Simple life-style changes may also help. Dietary modifications are not generally required but avoiding big meals and spicy foods 3 hours before bedtime helps.

Stimulants and substances that disturb sleep architecture should be avoided. These include caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Nicotine and caffeine should be avoided from late afternoon onwards.

Strenuous exercise is good during the day but should be avoided in the 3 hours before sleep. Psychologically stimulating activities should also be avoided including tense films, engrossing novels, thrilling TV and arguments.

Improving the upper airway can have significant benefits. Relieving nasal block and losing weight can have have major impacts on sleep quality.

William Flannery
Consultant ENT Surgeon
Royal Berkshire Hospital
Reading

William Colquhoun-Flannery - Royal Berkshire - ENT Surgery

Royal Berkshire Hospital - Mr William Flannery - ENT Surgery

Royal Berkshire Hospital
London Road
Reading, RG1 5AN

Circle Reading - Mr William Flannery - ENT Surgery

CircleReading
100 Drake Way
Reading, RG2 0NE

Berkshire Independent Hospital - Mr William Flannery - ENT Surgery

Berkshire Independent Hospital
Swallows Croft
Wensley Road
Reading, RG1 6UZ

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Medical Secretary (Jan Evans) Telephone: 0118 207 7397

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